The anniversary of the tragic events in Tallinn is coming. It were the events tragic for all inhabitants of Estonia and not only for them; and shaming events for the leadership of that country; and heroic events for the Bronze Soldier Monument defenders…
Everything began during the appropriation of Estonian independence when the Eternal Fire near the Bronze Soldier went out. In 1994 the plate with names and ranks of the Soviet soldiers buried at that place was removed.
On May, 9, 2005 the Monument was poured with red stain, and on May, 20, 2006 nationalists organized a meeting here demanding to dismantle the Bronze Soldier. The participants of the action spat at the Soldier’s face - at the face of the symbol of the victory over fascism which had aspirated to annihilate Russians, Jews, Estonians and many other people. Then those scoundrels hooked up a rope with a humiliating slogan over the Soldier’s neck. Witnesses tried to prevent the act of vandalism, the slogan was thrown down. But the police revealed its complete indifference. The Prime Minister of Estonia Andrus Ansip supported those twits declaring that the Monument was a symbol of the country’s occupation. He appears to have completely forgotten that during that so-called occupation he had occupied a leading party position.
At the night May, 21, 2006 the Bronze Soldier’s face was smeared with blue and legs with white stain - like the colours of the Estonian flag. The same was repeated on May, 22.
On the next day people were bringing flowers and lighting on candles. Several persons stayed on duty at the Monument till morning to save it from vandals. The national composition was growing, it was possible to say that not only Russians were concerned with the Bronze Soldier’s destiny…
Eventually it became clear that the mosaic of allegedly casual events was in fact a well-planned provocation of the Estonian authorities backed by NATO and EU. A series of local actions of military and mobilizing nature was planned for the period of April-May 2007.
The dynamic course of events in Estonia was included in the NATO plans but the events of April, 26-28, 2008 developed unexpectedly and shapelessly for all parties. Having matched all the facts it is possible to state that demolition of the Memorial and the burial dumping was planned for May, 10-12, 2007. The same is confirmed by the leadership of the building company which had been engaged into negotiation on the Memorial dismantling long before April, 26. The preliminary arrangement was made for the period after May, 9. But near 3:00 a.m. the company workers were at once mobilized for dismantling the Monument. There is no official order till now.
What has made the authorities force the events remains an enigma. The “Bronze Night” started, and the Bronze Soldier engaged with the enemy at the Western frontiers.
It is important to mention that the Estonian authorities were preparing that operation thoroughly. But its very beginning looked paradoxically as long as policemen driven to encircle the square hadn’t been equipped. Later, having received an order for dispersing the crowd, by authorities’ folly or by a planned by them provocation the policemen used gas and fire-extinguishers against non-aggressive masses. Under such conditions any peace-loving person becomes aggressive…
In spring 2007 I was able to follow the events in Tallinn only due to one of the Bronze Soldier defenders’ letters. Everything he wrote about affirmed frankness and purity of impulsion of all his comrades now being brought to trial for violation of laws, affirmed the Estonian authorities’ mean essence.
From the letter of March, 16, 2007:
“The situation is bad. After permanent terror and enemies’ suppression the heart of our comrade, one of the activist leaders of the “Night Watch” Vladimir Studenetsky gave down…
The days from middle of February to early March were especially tensional. Daily abuse and appeals of press and politicians to dismantle the “occupation symbol”, permanent threats to initiate excavation and dismantlement in a little while, almost daily provocations and confrontations near the very Monument, the night duties at it - all this had a hard impact on many persons’ health. Finally one militant left. He died in his line of duty. I got acquainted with him in the very last months, especially in the last days of his life, in picket lines near the Monument, during nasty tricks of our enemies when they threw newspapers, stones, stone slabs weighing dozens of kilograms onto flowers, they spoiled for a fight… It is common that the first suffer most of all, they are always under aiming sight, at front, in attack. But what to do? There is no choice. The basic soldier’s feature at warfare is firmness. Let those who haven’t folded their hands cherish it forever…
The war against the Memorial is waged every day. Thus, on March, 06 and 07, 2007 slabs and stones were thrown to the monument… Evidently, now the authorities intend to pass to defamation of the “Night Watch”. It is being done in order to present the “Night Watch” as a band of hooligans in the eyes of public…
I feel the “Night Watch” is a large hindrance for the Estonian authorities’ policy… Estonia today is a prison of peoples, the only law reigns in this prison, it is the law of complete obedience to the authorities and their conditions. Only then the “social peace”, a mess of pottage is guaranteed…
Provocations directed at prohibition of the “Night Watch” and all the organization supporting it as extremist and terrorist ones are going on. We mist overcome all it. We must!”
From the letter of March, 26, 2007:
“There were many football fans from Russia at the Monument on March, 24, 2007, many flowers and candles.
On March, 25, 2007, as always, I was at the Memorial with flowers… At 1:00 p.m. several persons with a barbed wire wreath appeared guarded by police (which shouted that we should channel off and not prevent them from laying the wreath). There were near 30 persons at the Monument and the same amount close by it as well as photographers and TV correspondents. The people stopped the way of the procession with the barbed wire wreath but police pushed them away making a track for the people with the wreath. I was pushed apart, too, and the man with the wreath injured many persons with it as long as he kept it in front of him. Having found myself aside I pulled this man’s jacket, and police started kicking my arms trying to detach my hands from his jacket. They managed to do it, a policeman drove me behind. I came back and took the violator’s jacket aback again. He was walking onto people by flowers, with malice prepense. The police kicked my arms again and drove me to their truck and locked there. Then they drove me to the department… In 1,5 hours I was released and obliged to come a month later for payment of the fine…
I came to the Monument again. Many of our supporters had been injured. I met Svetlana K. in a trauma center: she had slashes of barbed wire and brain concussion. As it is reported, OMON fighters broke in a way and scattered everybody. Somebody grasped the wreath and broke into a run towards a car to drive it away. The police took the wreath off…”
It reminds front reports, doesn’t it? But the people only defended their relic.
The individual with the barbed wire wreath was a member of the Independence Party of Estonia, a former special unit fighter of the U.S. Army Jüri Böhm. The wreath had a signature: “To Murderers of Estonian People from Jüri Böhm”. Hand-cuffs were detached to the wreath. The Union of Right Parties of Estonia, a part of the ruling coalition, and the ultra-nationalist ”National Movement of Estonia” have called Böhm the ”Person of the Year 2007” “due to his civic courage”. Comments are needless.
The Estonian President Hendrik Ilves stated in his interview to BBC that the monument to the fallen in the WWII at Tönismagi square was abusive for Estonians as it was a “monument to mass murders”.
Several hours before the Tallinn confrontment, in the afternoon April, 26, 2007 the Estonian Ambassador in Russia Marina Kaljurand declared in her interview to the “Echo of Moscow” radio channel that no one soldier fallen in the battle for Tallinn but 7 plunderers had been buried at Tönismagi square. Those words got wind to Estonia.
After all this existence of the “Night Watch”, influence of Russian mass media, etc. were not necessary for beginning of disorder. On April, 26, 2007 a spontaneous mass meeting in defence of the Bronze Soldier took place in Tallinn. It were the authorities’ actions that provoked all the disorders.
From the letter of April, 28, 2007:
“We have battles at street fighting here. On April, 28 I visited that place, the people began to gather at the evening. They shouted “Shame!” and “Fascists!” The square was encircled by police, OMON, there was a new water-jet vehicle. The police began to force people out, the OMON with shields approached (the “K” squad) and broke into a run onto people. People were beaten with cudgels, kicked by legs, pulled and detained in large amounts. A helicopter was swirling around again… Mass battues started at night, streets were encircled, they seized everyone… A military dictatorship was established covered by a hypocritical mask of democracy… The authorities acted more impudently having felt the taste of force and crime. Civil cars appeared, agents in civil clothes ran out or stood nearby and then seized people. Police ran upon and beat people back and belly with cudgels, pulled to departments… The authorities are sure of their strength and impunity…”
Policemen’s brutal atrocity shocked everybody. The Estonian regime didn’t resort to any explanations or apologizing having taken a decision to use brute force. It became the last straw which changed Russian-Estonian relations forever. Is it possible to forget the authorities’ terror against people in the streets without any martial law being humiliated by abusing a relic, beaten and confined in a hangar afterwards?
The Polizei has shown its cowardly meanness, inhumanity and heartlessness having organized a hunt upon citizens.
From the letter of May, 11, 2007:
“The night April, 28 to 29, 2007 was calmer. The authorities started repression. Aside from 3 our “Watchers”, youth sitting at computers in the Internet and exposing energy there was detained. One of our comrades, Oleg, was seized just at his work. He was seized, hand-cuffed and pulled away for interrogation… Blood was flowed, moreover, we the “Watchers” are being charged of disorders, but it was the government that used force against peaceful people! But we are guilty… I visited Dmitry Ganin’s funeral. He was 20 years old. There were many people. We sent the fellow to glory. All who participated and protested then are called plunderers, thieves, debauchers, vandals and criminals in Estonian press. Somebody even wrote that police had treated us too softly, that it had been necessary to shoot us down like at wartime to draw a line under us. That is our democracy… We failed to save the Memorial but didn’t lose morally, even won a lot… We prepare a picket line: “Freedom to courageous Watchers: Dmitry Linter, Maksim Reva, Mark Siryk”… The recent news is the following. I am looking forward to 5 years imprisonment for organizing mass disorder and inspiring others to throw stones at police and the building of Security police. I was detained at the railway station at 9:20 a.m. and released at 5:00 p.m. I was interrogated. They talked about video records of me at that night April, 26… I stay at home for written undertaking not to leave… The criminal case was initiated on May, 3, 2007, and I was detained on May, 10, 2007… Everyone is being seized now, criminal cases are being initiated… Even 3-4 months ago some of us joked bitterly: “It is time to rusk”. There were no illusions but there was simplicity and a feeling of proud independence. I am glad that so many people supported us and their courage infuriated the authorities so much. They were hurtled that so much youth had supported us but not them. It was the cause for revenge, rage and lawlessness…”
In the morning April, 27 a 18-years-old Tallinn schoolboy Mark Siryk was arrested by the Security police (KaPo) officers on his way to school to his state exam. He was released from prison only on July, 13. Siryk was confirmed to be at home during the street riots of April, 26 as soon as being detained for the first time even on April, 24 he had caught a cold in the remand cell and stayed at home with fever.
In the morning and afternoon April, 27 leaders of the “Night Watch” movement Dmitry Linter and Maksim Reva were also arrested. They remained in custody until December 2007. Up to midday April, 27 all the Russian sector of Estonian Internet was taken under control of the government - the possibility to publish comments to news articles and materials was cancelled. In the evening April, 28 the prohibition to publish comments touched the Estonian sector of Internet, too.
In the afternoon April, 27 the space around Tönismagi was encircled by police. People with flowers in their hands tried to approach the fence but police hold them off. Flowers and commemoration candles were laid just at policemen’s feet.
Directors of Russian schools in Estonia were obliged to read out the Education Ministry’s appeal to Russian schoolchildren of the country with the strong demand not to participate in the street events. But the majority of schools had already finished their lessons, and senior students were passing their state exams.
A few days later the Education Minister made the directors read out to the students his letter with justification of the government’s actions on the Bronze Soldier dismantlement but… with traditional reminding of horrors of the Soviet “occupation” and offered the students to “report him personally” about classmates having expressed their protest or taken part in street rebellions. A special e-mail was published for this purpose. A squeal campaign against “discordant Russians” began in Estonian schools of the country where up to a quarter of the country’s Russian pupils studied.
From 6:00 p.m. April, 27 Tallinn began to seethe again. Self-made placards appeared, chanting “Shame!” and “Ansip is shit!” sounded in Russian. Political heat was intensifying. Police resorted to cudgels without any reason or cause, moreover, not rubber cudgels like the night before but metal ones. Police seized everyone without distinction, pushed into cars and took to an undisclosed location. At that evening white constructive straps became the main weapon of “capturing” detainees. Mass “mop-up” of the protesters was going on. The situation was complicated by the fact that on Friday evening April, 27 there were a lot of peepers and strangers including foreign tourists who had been mixed with protesters and didn’t understand the essence of the events.
There also were disorders in the cities of Estonian North-East inhabited mostly by Russian-speaking population. Arrests were carried on there, too.
By official version every 13th inhabitant of the country including decrepit elderly and nursing babies has been detained.
As it was reported all the night long police was bringing detainees to the warehouse of the Tax and Customs Department of Estonia situated inside the “D” Terminal of the Tallinn port. Detainees with plastic constructive straps locked on their backs were lying on concrete floor, guards without badges or names were beating them from time to time. Scenes from the “D” terminal were recorded by cell phones and proved unusual for Europeans cruel treatment of detainees.
The only one who dared to raise his voice in the defense of the authorities’ lawlessness victims was the Tallinn mayor and the leader of the largest opposition Centrist Party of Estonia Edgar Savisaar who published his statement in the Internet on April, 28. Estonian mass media started throwing mud at Savisaar at once, at the following days Savisaar’s and the Centrist Party’s popularity among Estonians decreased at a dozen per cent.
Dozens of missing in actions were reported, more than 10 persons killed at riots and driven to mortuary by “people in uniform” were stated. All that time police refused in this or that way to provide any information to detainees’ relatives. Just in the morning April, 28 the Anti-Fascist Committee of Estonia opened a 24-hour “phone line” for seeking detained people. At the period after the police operations more than 200 persons applied for first aid to duty hospitals, some of them with serious traumas.
Most lawyers being asked for assistance replied gingerly that they “didn’t want to be engaged in politics”.
At midday April, 28 excavation of buried Soviet soldiers remains started at Tönismagi square encircled by policemen…
The “Night Watch” organization many members of which are under trial now thenceforth embodied the forces waging unequal battle against new fascists. And they have got strength and courage to fight to the last! In spite of the Bronze Soldier’s abolishment from Tönismagi the “Night Watchers” gained a moral victory over fascists.
The stupid government thinks it can put innocent people into prison, it can humiliate at fallen warriors’ remains, ransack tombs and destroy the monument but it cannot do the most important thing - it can never break the Spirit of Truth and bring the people to their knees. The Estonian authorities have proved and continue to prove its weakness everywhere! More and more people realize that the April events were beneficial for Estonian nationalists headed by Andrus Ansip and were provoked by them.
By the trial over the “Night Watch” activists the authorities intend to prove that disorders of April, 26-27 in Tallinn were a job of the “Night Watchers”. The charge was falling into pieces in front of the very eyes. Then a decision was taken to prove that the “Night Watch” had organized disorders indirectly, by its activities, few in number appeals, internal correspondence and phone talks. Naturally. The trial is able to prove anything in a non-law-based state…
The Estonian authorities convict their adversaries trying to prove their guilt anyway. At the same time they are deadly afraid of a trial over themselves.
For two evenings of the April riots policemen drove away from streets and beat in the port terminals more than 1000 persons. 53 of them backed by the Estonian Human rights information centre and trauma centres references applied to the prosecutor office. Absolutely all of them got refusals but those who had beaten them got medals. The German citizen Klaus Dornemann was the only to be lucky in this case. At the days of the April riots 65-year-old Klaus together with his son Lucas were thrown into a police vehicle, driven to the customs warehouse and beaten so heavily that he is not able to calm till now. He was beaten for his refusal to go on knees and his help to his fellow sufferers to cut plastic strainers on their hand by a penknife. As distinct from other prisoners of this small concentration camp Klaus has got a kiss-off. He wrote letters to everybody he could. (“Human rights are not the province of the President of Estonia”, the Chancellery has replied artlessly). He is going to apply to the European Court with his thick folder of bureaucrats’ kiss-offs. “I’ll crack them down! I’ll do those fascists to death by European Courts!” - roughly speaking, that is how Klaus curses meaning Estonian policemen. All the four days of the trial proceedings over Dmitry Linter, Maksim Reva, Mark Siryk and Dmitry Klensky he was sitting in the court hall as a live monument, not understanding a word in Russian. In order to support the Bronze Soldier defenders morally.
The Estonian authorities didn’t combine all the cases in single proceedings. Trials over the “Watchers” are separate. The largest one is the trial over the so-called organizers: 18-year-old Mark Siryk whose life philosophy had formed in independent Estonia; 62-year-old journalist Dmitry Klensky, a hereditary Estonian citizen speaking Estonian better that many natives; 34-year-old Dmitry Linter, a degreed psychologist; 33-year-old Maksim Reva who couldn’t stay away from coming to the Bronze Soldier because one of his grandfathers awarded by the medal “For Defense of Stalingrad” had finished his war near Warsaw and his second grandfather slept at the Tallinn military cemetery, not far from the place where the Bronze Soldier stands now. His father’s full-blood uncle has fallen in 1941 in the very centre of Tallinn - across a street from Tönismagi. The most frightening word for Maksim from his childhood was “SS-man”, and both his grandfathers had won the war.
The criminal indictment is based only on phone wire-tapping and e-mail inspection. After a long narration: one has called to the other and he has replied to the next one - a conclusion follows: “Linter’s, Klensky’s and Reva’s long-term activities consisting in provision of many people’s willingness to take part in mass disorders by forming relevant frames of mind”.
Most intercessions are rejected by the judge Kövask. The investigation failed to prove anything, the trial seeks to complete this job. The next series of proceedings on the “Bronze Four” is assigned to the early May.
From the letter of February, 9, 2008:
“The trials over organizers of riots are held”. It began on January, 14, 2008 and will be continued on May, 8-10 and 20-22, and I will take the floor as a prosecution witness. I will be interrogated. I decided to withhold evidence… It is dreadful that victims have to justify their honesty before a winner and a criminal. I intend to say that I refuse to testify from the party of the General Prosecutor’s office because it offends my honour and dignity. The Prosecutor office represents the party of state criminals at the trial. That’s a shame for Estonia… At my trial I am going to apply intercessions, to demand summon of the Prime Minister Ansip as a witness… I will defend myself without a lawyer…
Klensky was being interrogated for three days… the interpretation is very poor. And takes a lot of time. Linter withheld his evidence because his interrogations had been rejected…
Two deputies arrived, one from Latvia and a young woman from Germany (she was invited by German complainants)…
Trials over less significant persons are carried on almost every day: most of them are fined or sentenced to conditional terms of 1-3 years. To date the maximal fine was 35 thousand roubles… Recently I attended Yury Zhuravlev’s trial. He has no lawyer but he broke his charge into pieces…
Repressions are going on. Some people associated with the “Night Watch” are being fired, criminal cases are initiated, etc. Mud, talks, gossips, old sin - everything is being poured upon us. Three of our comrades have their business shut up. Phones are wire-tapped. Our human rights defenders have published a book on the authorities’ atrocities in April…”
From the letter of March, 01, 2008:
“…The investigation failed to prove anything certain except for agglomerate of hundreds of indirect “proofs”. That’s why the prosecutor office had to clean up this mess itself… The prosecutor office appeared to have set some “Watchers” against their friendly, at its party, and amounted to such a number! The prosecutor office appeared to have more witnesses on paper. It is tactics, too… What do they make use of? A witness may not legally tell a lie neither at trial nor at investigation. If the trial acknowledges the whole organization criminal all such witnesses would be sentenced to imprisonment. For withholding at trial one might be fined, imprisoned for 15 days, etc. It is possible to withhold evidence against oneself but there would be questions about others! The prosecutor office behaves impudently…
A week before the April events I wrote an application to police (April, 19, 2007) warning how I would behave and what I would do. I acted as I had written, I have nothing to conceal. It was my duty and my obligation even before the Estonian Constitution! That’s why I have admitted my charge. You are not dangerous for them if you don’t admit your guilt. There is danger for them if you state and prove at trial that you were obliged to behave so, that it was your duty! It may seem funny or naïve to somebody. But the matter is we were not deeply versed in law before April, 26, 2007, we acted inspiredly, feeling our rightness… The parliament’s recent law on military burials contradicts several articles of the Constitution, so I deemed my duty to resist those who tried to change the Constitution. There is an article in the Constitution of Estonia that offering resistance on one’s own initiative is his/her duty if anybody tries to change the Constitution…
The Estonian government has declared impudently that it had been saving Estonia from a coup d’etat, and now the prosecutor office attempts to prove it at the trial. But for some reason it seems to fail yet…
Zhuravlev’s case has been directed to fabrication of a new charge…”
Estonian justice is rather strange, isn’t it? An accusation has been presented to a person, but at the same time he is a witness. The essence of the case is in fact the same. What a sly trick!
From the letter of March, 09, 2008:
“On March, 6 I attended Yury Zhuravlev’s trial. The prosecutor requested 2 years (conditionally) with probation period of 18 months. The attorney delivered a good speech insisting on absolutory sentence. In fact there is no evidence. It is impossible to determine exactly if it was really he at the tape from the farness. Yury is unemployed after the April events and therefore he cannot pay out his fine… Up to 100 persons are sentenced already… In his last plea at trial Yury wished the Prime Minister Ansip and his company find themselves in the dock…
Near 10 days ago Larisa N. was menaced murder by phone. She applied to police. They replied it was out of their province (!). Life doesn’t cost a penny now, even in ostentatious democracy…
Recently I faced my state attorney’s deception. He said as long as I had no witnesses the trial might be held in short form only. They wanted to bench me but I don’t need such mercy…”
From the letter of March, 24, 2008:
“Zhuravlev has got 1,5 years conditionally with probation period of 18 months, he has to come to the police department to register every 15 days. He was fined to 20000 roubles. The trial failed to prove Zhuravlev’s complicacy to trashes and disorders by evidence presented (video and photo) but he was sentenced nevertheless basing on indirect facts and apprehensions. Yury will take an appeal against the court decision… The judge started from the fact that disorders had taken place, and Zhuravlev had been there that he didn’t deny, so he was guilty. Zhuravlev was the “Night Watch” member that is a challenge for authorities already…
Larisa N. is hardly badgered. The web site was blocked several times… Now they prepare to the April, 26-28 events anniversary. There is much police in the city even so. They will menace people and prohibit to gather into groups in the city at those days. The main trial is beginning in May - the Tallinn process! Over anti-fascists!…”
On April, 1 the trial over Andrey Achkasov began. Even in April 2007 Andrey has written an application to the police prefecture warning that an attempt to dismantle the Tönismagi Monument would be able to cause unpredictable consequences and that he would personally prevent the government’s anti-constitutional actions.
The next court session on Andrey Achkasov’s case is appointed on June, 10, 2008.
The congratulation of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Aleksey II to the President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves on the Independence day of Estonian Republic was published in press.
“As the Russian Orthodox Church primate and a native of Estonia I am very glad to realize that church-state relations are normalizing now in the republic led by you and having recently joined the European Union; the all-round revival of church life is taking place; people return to moral values acquiring spiritual support in their fathers’ belief”, the congratulation says.
These words appear a sacrilege for me, a humiliation to notions of spirituality, decency, morality against the background of the events in Estonia and the very behaviour of that country’s President.
The Estonian state imposes very hard, unprecedented for modern Europe pressure upon the “Night Watch” activists having defended the Bronze Soldier monument. After the April events in Tallinn the authorities put the “Night Watchers” Dmitry Linter, Maksim Reva and Mark Siryk into prison without any grounds and abused them.
Many defenders of the Monument were detained by police, special force or the Kaitseliit, beaten, subjected to torture only for holding some political, religious and moral views and acting according to universal notions of Good and Truth.
A former prison guard Maksim Demidov failed to redress an injustice being fired for having come to the Bronze Soldier on April, 26, 2007 AFTER work to express his protest and having thereby “besmeared the reputation of all the Estonian prison system”.
Svetlana Kungurova was denied prosecution against Jüri Böhm who had been ramming the crowd with a dangerous figure, and Svetlana had got a brain concussion.
The “Night Watch” spokesperson Larisa Neschadimova who on April, 26 was pulled out from her own car standing not far from the Monument, beaten and even fined for “offering resistance to policemen” continues her litigation with police.
Many of the “Night Watch” participants were subjected to humiliating conversations, interrogations and threats aimed at making them quit their political, religious and moral beliefs. Governmental structures and pro-Nazi oriented groups are posing pressure over relatives, friends and employers of “Night Watchers” (by threats, surveillance, phone wire-tapping, cutting off access to means of communication, opening and destruction of business correspondence and other similar information) aimed at creating isolation and unbearable living conditions around “Night Watchers”, at depriving them of means of subsistence.
Any humiliation should have limits. Estonia is proving white is black and black is white now. Events occurred in front of everyone’s eyes are repainted. Under such conditions retry of the events in which the city of Tallinn had lost the Soldier, shop-windows and its honour might always be expected.
But this is only one of the multiple negative consequences which the Soviet Union destruction and descending of all the republics into capitalist downfall have caused.
But sooner or later revelations of nationalism in the formerly large international family, attempts of destruction of the people’s relics, of the memory of the great deed, prosecution of those who have gathered themselves up to resist will cause even stronger burst of people’s anger and our final victory over capitalism.
This article was prepared after materials of the web site www.dozor.ee, a number of Estonian Russian-language newspapers and a participant’s letters.